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Friday, October 26, 2012

Colonial Timeline: Mississippi Country, Arkansas

Chickasaw Indians

This timeline is one of the best summaries I've found for Northeast Arkansas. We have had several flags fly over our area in early history--Spanish, French, District of Missouri, District of Arkansas, United States.

From:”Chickasawba”, H. Terry Childs and Charles H. McNutt, The Arkansas Archeologist, Vol 48, Arkansas Archeology Society, Fayetteville, AR, 2009, pg 28
Part of section entitled: The Local Historic Period (Childs)
Chickasawba Region (North Mississippi County Area)

Historic Period Time Line:
1541    June 18            Hernando De Soto expedition crosses the Mississippi River into Present-day Arkansas (Clayton et al. 1993)
            June 29            De Soto, accompanied by foot soldiers, cavalry, and a large contingent of Casqui                                     Indians, comes to frontier town of Pacaha. Remains in Pacaha until July 28 or approx one month (Clayton et al. 1993)
1673    Marquette and Jolliet descend Mississippi River. Observe great decrease in native population (Phillips et al.)
1951:419). Below the Ohio, the first town mentioned is Mitchigamea, located near the 33rd degree of latitude. The next village, Akamsea, was ca 40 km down-river. It is believed that the occupants of the latter village were Quapaw. (Morse and Morse 1983:316-317; Phillips et al. 1951:402-403)
1682    LaSalle Expedition build Fort Prudhomme on Chickasaw Bluffs, hunts in present-day Ms Co,         Arkansas. Claims region for France. (Goodspeed 1889:450)
1686    Tonti’s expedition, establishment of Arkansas Post (Delanglex 1944)
1712    Louis XIV grants A. Crozat a 15-year monopoly for granting lands, mines, and trade in region          including northeast Arkansas (Thomas 1930)
1722    French historian Charlevoix passed down Mississippi River and visits Indians in the area. No permanent settlements observed (Goodspeed 1889:450)
1762    Prior to defeat in the French and Indian wars, Louis XV or France secretly gives “Louisiana”            west of the Mississippi River to his cousin Charles III of Spain. Transfer ratified the following year. (Presson 1957:92)
1765    Map by Lt. John Ross first reference to Prunes River. Surveys western boundary of British territory after French and Indian War (BCN, December 31, 1999)
1785    A few Spanish and French traders located at Barfield Point, at the head of Canadian Reach. No        permanent settlements are in area during the 1700’s (Goodspeed 1889:450)  
1795    Spain recognizes Mississippi River as the western boundary of the US, grants free navigation rights on river. (Pinckney’s Treaty a.k.a. Treaty of San Lorenzo) (Walker 1971:5)
1799    White and Black population of Arkansas recorded as 386 (Reynolds 1908:214)
1800    Spain cedes Arkansas back to French by Tready of San Ildefonso (Walker 1971:5)
1801    Zadok Cramer begins publication of Navigator: Assigns numbers to island in Mississippi River (Cramer 1808)
1803    Louisiana Purchase. Arkansas region obtained by the US (Bolton 1998:24)  
1808    Governor Chouteau’s treaty with chiefs of Big and Little Osage, ceding 14,830,432 acres,  including MS Co Ar (Hempstead 1911:55-56; Reynolds 1908:214-215)
1810    First census shows 1,062 Whites and Blacks in Arkansas. Most people (874) living along the Arkansas River. (Reynolds 1908:214)
Note: Native Americans were not counted. 
1811-1812       Great Shakes, the New Madrid Earthquakes. The “Little Pemiscoe River,” that parallels         the Mississippi at a distance of ca 12 miles empties into the St. Francis, fills with sand (Fletcher 1812)
        (Dell was originally on the Pemiscot Bayou) 
1812    First steamboat passes Mississippi Co enroute to New Orleans from Pittsburg (Goodspeed 1889:451)
1812-1819       District of Arkansas attached to Missouri Territory (Walker 1917:6)

A Chickasaw Indian
1812    Soon after Great Shakes, Chief Chickasawba arrives at 3MS5 and builds hut on one of the mounds.  An Arkansas journal published at about this time gives detailed account of native ceremony intended to avert wrath of Great Spirit (Goodspeed 1889:450, 504)
1819    Arkansas Territory created (Presson 1957:127)
1828    *Captain Charles Bowen settles at Barfield Point. Gives account of Chief Chickasawba and also        fortified Indian site at Barfield Landing (Edrington 1962:24-25; Goodspeed 1889:451-452, 470)
1830    **Crawford family settles at North Sawba. Speak of friendliness of local Chickasaw Indians and        their chief, Chickasawba (McCall 1994)
1832    Elijah Buford settles on top of the largest mound at Barfield Point. Builds house and plants garden   on top of a mound. At this location are “immense mounds surrounded by ditches” (Goodspeed 1889:447)

1836    Arkansas becomes a state

Notes: *Descendents of Charles Bowen influenced the formation of the town of Dell. The Moody's of Dell are also connected to the Bowens.

** A few of the descendents of the Crawford family settled in the Dell area.